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Featuring the controversial KV 55 mummy. Now with a revised reconstruction of ancient events in this perplexing tomb.

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The Treasures of Yuya and Tuyu

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 Tomb Raiders of KV 46!
How thorough were the robbers who plundered the tomb of Yuya and Tuyu? How many times was the tomb robbed, and what were the thieves after? This study of post interment activity in KV 46 provides some answers.

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KV 55's Lost Objects: Where Are They Today?

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KV 55 Gold Foil at the Metropolitan

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Most of the images on this website have been scanned from books, all of which are given explicit credit and, wherever possible, a link to a dealer where they may be purchased. Some images derive from other websites. These websites are also acknowledged in writing and by being given a link, either to the page or file where the images appear, or to the main page of the source website. Images forwarded to me by individuals who do not supply the original image source are credited to the sender. All written material deriving from other sources is explicitly credited to its author. 
Feel free to use  material from the Theban Royal Mummy Project website. No prior written permission is required. Just please follow the same guidelines which I employ when using the works of other researchers, and give the Theban Royal Mummy Project  proper credit on your own papers, articles, or web pages. 

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Background Image:  Wall scene from the tomb of Ramesses II (KV 7.) From Karl Richard Lepsius, Denkmäler (Berlin: 1849-1859.)




XXI'st  Dynasty Gallery II
Learn more about the 21'st Dynasty.

Neskhons (c. 990?-969? B.C. Dated to reign of Pinudjem II.)
21'st Dynasty
Provenance: DB 320
Discovery Date: 1860? (official discovery 1881)
Current Location: Cairo Museum CG61095
View the coffins of Neskhons here

Neskhons.jpg (38428 bytes)

Click here for biographical data

Details: The mummy of Neskhons was partly unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on June 27'th, 1886. G. E. Smith completed the unwrapping in 1906. He discovered that flowers (of an unidentified family) had been wrapped around Neskhons' big toes. Another flower on a long stem had been placed on her left foot, and another encircled her left ankle. Although Smith could not determine her age at death, he notes that Neskhons had no gray hairs and must have been relatively young when she died. Based on the swollen appearance of her stomach, Smith concluded that Neskhons had been pregnant (or in the process of giving birth) when she died.
    Neskhons' mummy had been covered with an Osiris-type shroud which the Abd el-Rassul's had probably cut through when they stole Neskhons' heart scarab (which is now part of the British Museum's collection, # EA25584). No other objects of value appeared on her mummy, but numerous grave goods associated with her burial were found in DB 320. These objects consisted of copper vessels, a basket of glass and faience vessels, a shabti box, an Osiris figure, a papyrus, and four canopic containers with lids depicting the Four Sons of Horus. (These canopics are currently in the British Museum, and may be seen at the British Museum website.)
    Neskhons' outermost coffin (CG61030) was intact, and close examination revealed that it had originally been made for a woman named Isiemkheb (which Niwinski distinguishes from Isiemkheb-D CG1093 below.) Her inner coffin and coffin board had also been appropriated from this same Isiemkheb (who was probably the wife of Menkheperre-A and is designated as Isiemkheb-C by Kitchen) and had their gilded hands and faces removed in antiquity. (See a photo of one of Neskhon's coffins from Ian Bolton's Egypt: Land of Eternity site.)
    Neskhons lay in only one of her coffins (presumably the inner one, although this is not specified by Reeves.) Her other coffin was found containing the mummy of Ramesses IX. Dewachter theorizes that Ramesses IX was mistakenly put in Neskhon's coffin in DB 320 during one of the caching operations. However, since Neskhon's original burial was in DB 320 in Year 5 of Siamun (see Other Burial Data below) and occurred many years before the placement of Ramesses IX in the DB 320 cache after Year 11 of Shoshenq I (according to the dating system of Reeves), it seems unlikely that the kind of mix-up referred to by Dewachter would have occurred. 
    Reeves offers an interesting explanation for the presence of Ramesses IX in a coffin of Neskhons. He points out that linen dockets on the mummy of Ramesses IX indicate that the linen employed to rewrap this king had been donated by Neskhons, and theorizes that she may also have chosen to donate one of her own coffins for use in one of the king's reburials. If we accept  Reeves' account of post interment activity in the Theban royal necropolis, this particular reburial of Ramesses IX was probably in the k3y of Inhapi, and had to have taken place sometime prior to Neskhon's death, which occurred shortly thereafter in the same year. However, an argument against Reeves' theory about the hypothetical donation of this coffin may be based on the observable fact that no attempt was made to modify it for a male burial, as was done with other female coffins subsequently used by men. (Source Bibliography: CCR, 110ff.; BSFE 74 [1975], 27; DRN, 201, 207, 213, 218, 219, n. 68; JARCE 16 [1979], 49ff.; MiAE, 242, 316, 330, ill. 399; MR, 566ff., 578 f., 590ff.; RM, 107ff.)  

Other Burial Data
Original Burial: In DB 320 (in end chamber "F".) Reeves states that Neskhons predeceased her husband (Pinudjem II) and dates her burial to Year 5 of Siamun 4 smw 21 based on a wall docket found at the bottom of the entrance shaft to DB 320 (see Wall Docket translation below.) (Source Bibliography: DRN, 256.)

Wall Docket (from bottom of entrance shaft of DB 320): Year 5 4 smw 21 of Siamun (or Amenomope? Osochor?/Pinudjem II?: "Year 5 4 smw 21. Day of burial (krs) of the chief of ladies Neskhons, by the god's father of Amun, overseer of the treasury Djedkhonsiufankh son of...; the prophet of Amon-Re king of the gods Ankhefenamen; the elder (?) Nespay...; the god's father of Amun, chief of the army Nespakashuty. The seals which are upon this place: the seal of the overseer of the treasury Djedkhonsiufankh; the seal of the scribe of the treasury Nes..." (Source Bibliography: DRN, 237, #36; JEA 32 [1948], 26; MR, 520f. [facs., transcr.]; RNT, 251 [24]; TIP, 422 [68.])

Photo Credit: RM (Cairo, 1912,) pl. LXXXII.
For  high resolution images of Neskhons see the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plates LXXXII. LXXXIII, LXXXIV. Recent color photos of the mummy of Neskhons may be seen at the Eternal Egypt website.

Source Abbreviation Key

Isiemkheb-D (c. 990?-969? B.C. Dated to reign of Pinudjem II.) 
21'st Dynasty
Provenance: DB 320
Discovery Date:
1860? (official discovery 1881)
Current Location:
Cairo Museum CG61093
Isiemkheb.jpg (69727 bytes)Biographical data:
Wife of Pinudjem II.
See Isiemkheb-D's coffins

Because of its remarkable state of preservation, the mummy of Isiemkheb-D has never been unwrapped. (See another photo of Isiemkheb from MR1 [Cairo, 1881] reprinted in KMT [3:4] 47.) Maspero erroneously reported that the mummy had been plundered in antiquity (an error repeated by Dewhacter) probably due to the existence of a heart scarab mistakenly attributed to her which was illustrated in the 18'th century De origine et usu obeliscorum of G. Zoega. (Daressy also mistakenly attributes this scarab to Isiemkheb-D but in all probability it originally belonged to the same Isiemkheb-C in whose coffins the bodies of Neskhons and Ramesses IX were found. cf. Neskhons' entry above.)
    X-rays taken by Harris and Weeks reveal a small number of articles still in situ beneath Isiemkheb-D's Osiris shroud and bandages. Harris and Weeks specifically mention a small amulet on Isiemkheb-D's neck, another on her right arm, and one on her forehead (cf. the leather amulet thong found on Maatkare's head.) X-rays also reveal that Isiemkheb-D suffered from arthritis of the knees and tooth decay. She was found in her original double coffin set (CG 61031). Although the outer coffin was intact, the inner coffin and coffin board had their gilded hands and faces missing. Isiemkheb-D was found with a number of grave goods: a leather shrine, a stand with four copper vessels, provisions of various sorts, broken shabti boxes, an Osiris figure, a papyrus, and canopic jars. (Source Bibliography: ASAE 20 [1920], 17f.; BSFE 74 [1975], 32, n. 31; CCR, 134ff.; DRN, 201, 207, 213, 257; JARCE 16 [1979], 49ff.; MiAE, 78, 91, 132, 175, 231, 242, 316, 330, ills. 138, 430; MR, 577, 584ff.; RM, 106 f., pl. 80; XRA, 3F13-3G8; XRP, 50, 51, 173.)

Other Burial Data:
Original Burial
: Due to the numerous grave goods found with Isiemkheb-D, and the intact condition of her mummy, it is highly likely that DB 320 was her original place of burial. (Source: DRN, 257.)
Post-Interment Activity: Salima Ikram and Aidan Dodson theorize that Isiemkheb-D's inner coffin and coffin board were probably plundered by members of Pinudjem II'nd's burial party, who took advantage of the high priest's burial to rifle the funerary equipment of one of his wives. (Source: MiAE, 330.)  If this is the case, then we know the date at which the plundering occurred: Year 10 4 prt 20, the date of Pinudjem II'nd's funeral as recorded on the Wall Docket at the bottom of DB 320's shaft entrance. We also know the names of the people who took credit for the high priest's burial: Djedkhonsiufankh, a treasurer (probably associated with the Karnak temple complex); Nespakashuty, a military scribe and necropolis inspector; Pediamun, son of Ankhefenkhons, who bore the intriguing title "chief of secrets"; a priest of Amun whose partly illegible name contained the three syllables "...enamun"; and a man named Wennufer. These men were also given the title "god's father of Amun," and were evidently very important people. They were accompanied at DB 320 by Bakenmut, a royal scribe from "The Place of Truth", i.e. the Valley of the Kings; and two chief workmen from the necropolis named Pediamun and Amenmose. (See Wall Docket translation in 21'st Dynasty Gallery I, given in Pinudjem II's entry.) 
    It is, of course, conceivable that these men were corrupt officials and avaricious necropolis employees just like the ones named in the Tomb Robbery Papyri of the late XX'th Dynasty. But why would they be willing to leave their signatures in a tomb they had themselves just plundered? Perhaps the men who gave their names and titles on the DB 320 wall inscription did little of the actual work involved in laying the mummy of Pinudjem II to rest. This could have been delegated to a crew of workers, who took advantage of the moment and tore the gilding off the inner coffin and coffin board of Isiemkheb-D. (Source Bibliography: DRN, 257; MiAE, 330.)

Photo Credit: XRP (1973,) 51.
For  high resolution images of Isiemkheb-D see the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plate LXXX.

Source Abbreviation Key

Nestanebtishru (c.990?-977? B.C. Precise dating uncertain.)
Late 21'st Dynasty--Early 22'nd Dynasty
Provenance: DB 320
Discovery Date:
1860? (official discovery 1881)
Current Location:
Cairo Museum CG61096
View Nestanebtishru's coffins and canopicsNestanebtishru.jpg (38902 bytes)

Biographical data: Daughter of Pinudjem II and Neskhons. Nestanebtishru is often said to have been wife of the Fourth Prophet of Amen, Djedptahiufankh (see below.)

The mummy of Nestanebtishru was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on June 30'th, 1886. (Go here and here for more photos of Nestanebtishru taken by Emile Brugsch in 1886, reproduced in MA [1958,] 125-126) G. E. Smith describes this mummy as "one of the finest specimens of the embalmer's art in the XXI'st Dynasty," and noted that the earlier mistake of "over packing and distending the face" has not occurred here. He further describes her (subjectively) as a "haughty, Bourbon-like lady" and states that the sawdust (or "powdered wood") used to stuff her body cavity still emits a "strong, pungent aromatic odour." Like other aristocratic ladies of her period, Nestanebtishru's body had been colored with yellow ochre in imitation of the yellow coloration given to ladies in wall paintings. Reeves states that no valuable objects were found among the mummy wrappings, but notes that an impression of an embalming plate can be discerned, apparently in the hardened resins used by the embalmers. There was also a linen docket written in hieratic on her shroud, which indicated that it had been woven for her by her alleged step mother Isiemkheb (D?) (see Linen Docket translation below.)
    Nestanebtishru was found in her original double coffin set (CG61033.) Both inner and outer coffins and coffin board were intact, although poorly preserved, and appear to have been damaged by the chemical actions of the funerary oils that must have been poured upon them in large amounts. These oils appear to have hardened and discolored into a thick, black coating which obscures most of the decorative motifs and inscriptions. (For more about the coffins of Nestanebtishru, click here.)

    Nestanebtishru's other burial equipment included copper vessels, damaged shabti boxes, an Osiris figure, a papyrus (see photo from EMbm, 4) and canopic jars. There is also a shabti of Nestanebtishru in a private collection (see photo from CP, 177, where no data concerning the identity of its owner is given) and another DB320 shabti of Nestanebtishru that was acquired by the Medelhavsmuseet in Stockholm in 1976 (Medelhavsmuseet Bulletin, Stockholm 11, 1976, 65-73, which notes the acquisition of a "blue-glazed shawabti of Nestanebasheru, the daughter of Pinodjem II" and gives the museum catalogue number as MME 1975:72.) Whether these were found by Brugsch in situ in DB 320, or stolen earlier and sold on the antiquities market by the Abd el-Rassul's remains an open question. One of Nestanebtishru's rather crudely made copper vessels is in the collection of the Petrie Museum and may be seen here. Impressions in the hardened resins covering Nestanebtishru's lower abdomen were noted by Smith, who concluded that an embalming plate (referred to above) had originally covered the embalming incision.  Reeves concludes that this object (probably made of gold) could only have been stolen by those responsible for originally wrapping the mummy because the indentations which it made were beneath the wrappings that Maspero removed in 1886. (Source Bibliography: CCR, 196ff.; CP, 17; DRN, 191, 201, 207, 213, 218 n. 57; EM, 118f.; EMbm, 4; MiAE, 316; MR, 579f.; RM, 109ff.)

Other Burial Data: 
Original Burial
: In DB 320. This can be inferred from the relatively intact condition of her mummy and coffins, given Reeves' reasonable assumption that the restorers would not rebury a mummy unless its original tomb had been robbed. He also states that Nestanebtishru's burial was one of the last original burials in this tomb, and that it was after the interment of her alleged husband Djedptahiufankh (see below) that the mummies from the k3y of Inhapi were cached with them in DB 320. He dates Nestanebtishru's burial to a Year 13 of an unspecified ruler on the basis of the linen docket found on her mummy (see below.) Reeves does not specify where Nestanebtishru was found in DB 320, but, due to her relationship with Pinudjem II and Neskhons, she was probably laid to rest with them in end chamber "F". If we agree that Nestanebtishru's linen docket inscription cannot be positively attributed to any particular reign with confidence, its dating to an unspecified Year 13 is not extremely helpful. However, if we assume that the Isiemkheb referred to in Nestanebtishru's docket is Isiemkheb-D, and agree (with Reeves) that Isiemkheb-D predeceased her husband, Pinudjem II, then the Year 13 on Nestanebtishru's docket can only be Year 13 of Pinudjem II. If this is the case, then it seems highly unlikely that Djedptahiufankh was Nestanebtishru's husband, for he would have outlived her by about 42 years, well into the reign of Shoshenq I. This may, of course, have been the case, but the mummy of Djedptahiufankh seems to be that of a young man. Be this as it may, the attribution of Nestanebtishru's linen docket to Year 13 of Pinudjem II, if feasible, mandates an earlier dating for her burial in DB 320 than is usually given. (Source Bibliography: DRN, 191, 257.)

Linen Docket Translation: Year 13 of (identity of ruler uncertain) Shoshenq I? Siamun? Psusennes I? Iuput? (to this list I would add Pinudjem II for reasons given in Djedptahiufankh's entry below.) "Linen for Min, Horus and Isis which the first great one of the harem Isiemkheb made in Yr 13" (Source Bibliography: DRN, 239; MR, 579; RNT, 259 [19] which Reeves notes is "in error.")

Photo Credit: Emile Brugsch, 1886. From MA (1958,) p. 125. 
For  high resolution images of Nestanebtishru see the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plates LXXXV, LXXXVI, LXXXVII, LXXXVIII.

Source Abbreviation Key

Djedptahiufankh (c. 990?/969?-935? B.C. Precise dating uncertain.)
Provenance: DB 320
Discovery Date:
1860? (official discovery 1881)
Current Location:
Cairo Museum CG 61097
View Djedptahiufankh's coffins here

Djedptahiufankh.jpg (56092 bytes)Biographical data:
Djedptahiufankh bore the title "Fourth Prophet of Amen," and is often said to have been married to Nestanebtishru (see above.)

The mummy of Djedptahiufankh was intact when found in DB 320, and was partly unwrapped by Maspero on June 29'th, 1886. At that time, Maspero found the figures of two serpents (made of some unspecified material) on the neck of the mummy, and also a lotus flower, which had been wrapped in the folds of linen. He also discovered a heart scarab on the mummy's chest along with a silver figure of a hawk with spread wings. 
    Twenty years later (on Sept. 5'th, 1906) Smith removed some of the remaining bandages and discovered numerous amulets and other items of jewelry. Very thin gold rings were found on Djedptahiufankh's fingers and toes, and were probably used, in place of string,  to keep gold finger and toe covers in place. Smith found many carnelian objects on the left arm: a  uraeus, a serpent's head, an Ab amulet, a lotus bud, a barrel-shaped object, and an object of unknown significance shaped somewhat like the letter "Y." 
    In some manner attached to these, Smith also found a scarab and a wedjet made of a mottled black and white stone; two lotus buds, another scarab, and a djed amulet made of light green stone; a broken object of undetermined significance; and a "boomerang"-shaped object with a figure of Thoth engraved upon it. The embalming plate had been fashioned out of a copper alloy material, identified by Smith as bronze, and had the usual wedjet fashioned on it in raised relief. 
    Djedptahiufankh's mummy lay in a double coffin set (CG 61026) which had originally belonged to an individual named Nesshuenopet. The coffin board had also originally belonged to another person whose identity is unspecified. The outermost coffin had its gilded left hand missing. Otherwise, the coffins and coffin board were intact.
    Djedptahiufankh was found with three shabti boxes, an Osiris figure, and a papyrus. There were also three different inscriptions on his wrappings (see Linen Docket translations below.) (Source Bibliography: CCR, 200ff.; DRN, 201, 207, 212; MR, 572ff., 590, 592; RM, 112ff.; XRA, 4D11-4E6.)

Other Burial Data:
Original Burial:
In DB 320, no earlier than Year 11 of Shoshenq I Reeves contends that necropolis officials took advantage of the burial of Djedptahiufankh to transfer the mummies from the tomb of Inhapi to DB 320, thereby implying that Djedptahiufankh's was the last burial prior to the caching of the other mummies. (Source Bibliography: DRN, 257.)

Linen Docket Translations:
(i.) Year 5 of Shoshenq I/Iuput: " Noble linen which the dual king (nsw bity) lord of he two lands Hedjkheperre son of Re lord of appearings Shoshenq-meramun made for his father Amun in Year 5; noble linen..." (Source Bibliography: DRN, 239; MR, 573 [transcr.]; RNT, 253 [31].)

(ii.) Year 10 of Shoshenq I/Iuput: "Noble linen which the dual king (nsw bity) lord of he two lands Hedjkheperre son of Re lord of appearings Shoshenq-meramun made for his father Amun (in) year 10; noble linen which the high priest of Amon-Re, great chief of the army Iuput, true of voice, king's son of the lord of the two lands Shoshenq-meramun, made for his father Amun (in) Year 10" (Source Bibliography: DRN, 239; MR,  573 [transcr.]; RNT, 253 [32].)

(iii.) Year 11 of Shoshenq I/Iuput:

Photo Credit: RM (Cairo, 1912,) pl. LXXXIX.
For  high resolution images of Djedptahiufankh see the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plates LXXXIX, XC, XCI, XCII, XCIII (for close up of jewelry on wrist.) Recent color photos of Djedptahiufankh's mummy may be seen at the Eternal Egypt website. See Flickr member dustinkeirstead's color photo of Djedptahiufankh's mummy as it appears today in the Royal Mummy Room of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

Source Abbreviation Key